SpecialEnglish. Word Book. Voice of America. Washington, D.C. www. flampertomanes.ml A list of words used in Special English. Download PDF: History of English Part 1. December 25, Download PDF: History of English Part 1. Download (right-click or option-click and save). kB . Using VOA Special English. To Improve Advanced English. Learners' Productive Use of. High Frequency Words. In China many non-English majors, who often.
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VOA Special English Text & MP3 Files. Listening and Reading Material for English Learners ESL teachers may find good materials here for English Lessons . VOA Special English Word Book. The Parts of Speech n. (noun) - a name word v. (verb) - an action word ad. (adjective/adverb) - a describing. resources for English, Esperanto, French, Spanish, and links to VOA Learning English (Voice of America) Don Quijote de la flampertomanes.ml
It has… A strong focus on idioms. Each section has 15 different lessons on specific idioms. But it is definitely great for learners, too.
Another cool thing is that most articles and posts let you download PDF transcripts or audio files. Just so you know, the whole site including this part uses British English. The website version is also very easy to use.
On FluentU, you can learn English with fun video content. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons. There are lots of features that come along with the videos that make them easy to learn. These include sections with quizzes and questions, subtitles and definitions for every word in every video. I personally have used FluentU to practice and improve my Chinese.
It is one of the best and most user-friendly options to learn a language well. Because of that, the videos are always authentic. Variety and fun: FluentU videos are about things real people care about and enjoy. There are videos on a wide variety of topics that are entertaining, interesting or funny. Instead, you can just move over any word and instantly get a definition. You can use the transcripts to read along or repeat after speakers in the videos.
Because FluentU videos are real videos with native speakers in them, you can hear how people actually talk. In addition to great listening lessons currently over 1,! There is a huge variety of lessons and topics. Vocabulary: There are also vocabulary quizzes for most of the lessons.
Special English lends itself to being developed as a simpler 'downshifted' mode of English for active communication and genuine "fluency development" Nation, a - a reasonable target "plateau level" West, ; , pp. It is imperative that the profession of TESL confront a primary reality: although many of us teach learners from relatively privileged upscale backgrounds who may progress to remarkably high levels of proficiency, the great multitude of learners will not attain fluency much beyond 1,, words, the working range of Special English and the General Service List West, As West emphasized , p.
A vocabulary of 2, words is good enough for anything, and more than one needs for most things. At the present time, millions of learners are spending billions of boy-girl hours in EFL study, but a significant proportion fail to move beyond mid-elementary proficiency.
For those who cannot or do not wish to move up the Everest of proficiency, staying with SE and enhancing their command across all four skills Nation, , p. It requires something of a 'paradigm shift' in how we think about what TESL should be Templer, a.
Is SE 'authentic' or simply simplified and 'scaled down' for learners, and thus not really 'real English'?
This is analogous to the case of validity, where a test is valid not itself, but only if used for the purpose for which it was designed. It jibes well with Krashen's notion of "authenticity" in the non-traditional sense as a "text that is interesting and comprehensible" to specific readers p.
Along similar lines, SE editor Avi Arditti has stressed the underlying ethos of plainer, clearer discourse that animates SE: There is a fine line between simplifying and simplification. Simplifying can seem somewhat demeaning. Experimentation is necessary. Even in an ESL country like Malaysia, learner proficiency levels, and pupil motivation in ELF remain a major challenge for educators in much of the rural countryside.
Use of SE in such a project may help 'reluctant readers' to read in L2, and even L1. There are to date no textbooks that center on teaching Special English as an active model for multiple skills, and few available exercise databases in print or online for practicing with Special English texts. Such textbooks need to be developed.
The scope of SE as a huge online multimodal reservoir invites a student-centered, more autonomous mode of use.
In Krashen's view, bringing students to lower intermediate level is deemed sufficient for formal instruction.
Students who then wish to advance can teach themselves as "autonomous acquirers" Krashen b, p. Special English can be an instrument to this end, empowering students to be life-long, self-guided learners, utilizing the SE text bank.
We know that the poverty level of students and their overall access to print in the home, school and community are remarkably strong indicators of how well they will perform in standardized reading tests in the U.
McQuillan, As Krashen b stresses: Given access to interesting, comprehensible books, most children will read, and many will read compulsively, "bingeing" on favorite authors or genres [ The real problem in literacy is that children of poverty have little access to books. They attend schools with inferior classroom and school libraries, live in neighborhoods with inferior public libraries, few bookstores and other public places conducive to reading e.
These are a significant framework for thinking about new paradigms for ELF among the working majorities, where SE can serve as a leaner power tool for transnational communicative competence.
Its feature articles on American life, history, education, music, science and biography are informative, and not heavily tilted in terms of some line of propaganda. About half of the 14 weekly feature stories focus on some aspect of American culture, society, education. It is a good example of fiction that delves into the problems of young adults Cho, , recognized as a core focus for EFL, connecting with their own lives.
Its readability as a simplified story scores at mid-4th grade on the Flesch-Kincaid scale, whereas the original tale scores at grade The archives contain more than 2, feature articles on myriad aspects of American life, a rich ensemble of authentic texts. This builds a wide window onto intercultural awareness.
Certainly many feature articles are shaped by a particular perspective. But there is a balance in approach and coverage which will appeal to a broad segment of learners. Section 8. How effective its use is with medical students around the globe has not been empirically investigated. Nation , p.
When this is supplemented by proper nouns and technical vocabulary, learners will approach the critical 95 percent coverage threshold needed for reading. Heil pp. Several scientists in Australia examined a selection of SE texts on scientific topics and praised the clarity and compactness of presentation, and the accuracy of the content personal communication, Lee Brunckhorst, 14 June This is quite relevant to the overall thrust of SE as a leaner, plainer mode of discourse.
Bill DuBay ; provides a well-researched, readily accessible introduction to the whole field of readability research. I would like to argue that SE is a potential paradigm of Plain Language, especially for ELF learners, and have recommended to some scholars that they consider applying SE in their own writing of textbooks for students in the Global South, such as in basic materials for social work pedagogy personal communication, Richard Weatherley, 28 July Such plainer academic English has also been broached for possible experimentation within the Global Text Project30 discussion with Richard Watson, 3 August The broader research and practice community focused on Plain Language in the U.
The focus in Plain Language is to enhance mass literacy through empirical studies on readability via focus groups, quantitative analyses, group testing. It is geared to a key tenet: learning to respect your target audience and their level of native comprehension skills, what they are honestly comfortable with, their authentic vernacular literacy.
The principle of equity here is that ordinary people have a right to communicate - and be communicated to - in language they can readily understand DuBay, ; ; McBeth, Research at Texamen Netherlands by linguists focusing on developing Plain English and Simple Dutch supports the thesis that "it is possible to write down all of the information in our advanced society at language level B1.
Whether it is a text about infant nutrition or a text about complex stock options, the information can always be written at level B1, without losing valuable information.
It looks at wider issues, such as the complexity of content, the choice of channels, and the capabilities or preferences of user.
Other simplified modes There is a growing felt need for a 'downshifted,' more serviceable mode of English proficiency among various segments of the international ELF learning public. SE theory and practice can learn from this. Recent work on Basic Global English as developed by Joachim Grzega and associates in Germany is also a relevant adjunct initiative. Its experimental model centering on words, plus words of the student's choosing, based largely on frequency, has been launched and will perhaps soon be taught experimentally to adult learners Grzega ; idem, personal communication, 26 Oct.
It utilizes two levels: 1, headwords, akin to West's lexical mini-model of Minimum Adequate Vocabulary, and 2, headwords for more complex discourse. Only empirical study in the field with control groups can establish whether Special English can serve as a four-skill target plateau for large numbers of learners, and as a solid reservoir of material for Free Voluntary Reading and other applications.
Is slower delivery effective for language retention, especially with learners who experience special difficulties with English phonology? Can extensive listening help improve active pronunciation? It is important to investigate the impact of slow delivery on student learning, student attitude, and student dictation skills.
Jeff McQuillan runs an innovative extensive listening site that features initial slow delivery,38 and suggests comparative research is needed personal communication, Jeff McQuillan, 21 December In the realm of cultural attitudes, what is the impact of negative student attitudes in a number of countries toward U. Are students resistant to using VOA materials for this reason? Karmani, How closely does the lexis of texts adhere to the SE Word Book?
If it deviates, does this lessen comprehensibility? What kinds of learning activities are best effective with the SE multimodal texts? Detailed empirical work is needed In what teaching environments has Special English had an impact, and how? The large archive of listener input from letters to the SE unit is one corpus of empirical data for analysis and hypothesis building. But extensive field work and experimentation is essential, especially building on projects utilizing action research Burns, ; Mertler, , and some forms of case study analysis Stake, ; ; Yin, A search on ERIC for "readability" brings up 2, references, while "listenability" brings up only nine.
It is not so surprising, however, when we consider that research into listening itself did not get well underway until the s.
The International Listening Association did not start until Citing empirical research, he stresses that "after the 8th grade, listening skills do not keep up with the improvement in reading skills. After the 12th-grade level, the same text may be harder to understand when heard than when read. This includes speech in radio, TV, classes, educational materials, and communications between professionals and clients.
A message that may be easy for a person to read may be too difficult for the same person when spoken Dubay, b. It would be useful to investigate the special distinctive features of graded listening input in Special English through the lenses of research as reflected in the International Listening Association. Perspectives on ways of researching listening and listening pedagogy as explored in the International Journal of Listening provide a useful framework for re-examining aural comprehensible input.
Thai acquirers of ELF are often bewildered by spoken English text which they understand far more readily if they see it in print.
That also holds for movie dialogue, where comprehension is much aided if subtitles in English are available. More research on this is needed, and Special English offers a rich terrain within action research for exploring listenability of graded texts that score at Flesch Grade Level Krashen , p.
Develop a battery of textbook materials that actively teach SE. Perhaps such materials could be published under Creative Commons online, 42 and kept outside the profit-oriented agendas of any private publisher. Spur a new series of books written in SE on a range of topics, including anthologies of texts for academic and scientific subjects.
This would be similar to Charles K. Ogden's vision of a "Basic Library of General Knowledge" in Basic English, 1, books on all sciences in simple language, 43 part of his program of "democratizing knowledge" and access to it Templer, ; Templer, ; a. Make a title and subject index of the Archive. This is a task a group of students could readily complete.
For example, there are nearly articles under "Education Report" in the Archive, but users have no way of searching by title and topic.
Create a corpus of Special English from the archives and other texts, and make this available online. This is a major desideratum for corpus linguistics and ELF. Encourage more use of Special English systematically through workshops and other material by U.
The Simplification Centre at the University of Reading is a broader paradigm. A laudable but now defunct paradigm is "Global Issues for Learners of English," a spin-off website based on the progressive left magazine The New Internationalist. This website, still accessible, 45 operated from to , and was then discontinued due to the heavy work load it entailed for its founders, Bob Keim and Chris Doye personal communication, Bob Keim, 9 June It is grounded on a democratic tenet that ELF discourse should remain comprehensible for the working social majorities.
References Acker, V. New York: Lexington Books. DuBay] Arsenault, A. Bamford, J.
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Berkowitz, J. Betts, R. Brenner, R. Brown, J. Burns, A. Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cary, S. Going graphic: Comics at work in the multilingual classroom. Portsmouth: Heinemann. Chmela, H. Cho, K. Chomsky, N. Clandfield, D. Council of Europe. Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cutts, M. The quick reference Plain English guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Plain English story. Dale, H. Day, R. Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14 2 , DuBay, W. The principles of readability. Smart language. Readers, readability and the grading of text. North Charleston, S. Dubay, W. Dupuy, B. Furukawa, A. SSS extensive reading method proves to be an effective way to learn.
Gee, J. Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses. London: Routledge. Goodman, J. Graddol, D. English Next. London: British Council. Grzega, J. Report on an elementary school project," Journal for EuroLinguistiX 4, Heil, A. Voice of America: A history. New York: Columbia University Press. Hu, M. Jenkins, J.
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